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Canon GNU/Linux printer support: progress?

This weekend is the UK PDF Readers Sprint in Manchester, and part of the day will be spent sending letters to public institutions requesting that they remove adverts for non-Free PDF software. In anticipation of this task I purchased a printer this week, a Canon IP4850, expensive at around 65 EUR, but I was reassured by the cheap price of ink.

I’ve used canon printers before and have generally had good experiences. This is the first Canon printer that I’ve purchased which comes with semi-official GNU/Linux support. I say semi-official as on the box is written:

Operation can only be guaranteed on a PC with pre-installed Microsoft Windows 7, Vista, or XP

The canon support website however offers drivers in the form of an RPM, DEB, and even a separate archive containing the ‘driver source file’.

After installing and testing these packages on my Debian based system, I found several problems however:

  1. The drivers are proprietary and under a restrictive license
  2. The only GUI for configuring the printer is CUPS own lpadmin. Whilst this is good in as much as it is integrated into your system better than a standalone application would be, it lacks many of the features available to users of the Windows drivers, including print head alignment, for instance. For a relatively expensive photo printer (ones less than half the price are readily available), it’s grating not to have fine-grained control over print quality.
  3. In order to install the packages, although DEB and RPM packages are available, you have to execute a clunky shell script from the command line which fails if you don’t already have cups installed and running
  4. To uninstall the drivers a specific procedure is required that is incompatible with removing the packages via the system package manager (‘sudo cnijfilter-ip4800series-pkgconfig.sh –uninstall’)
  5. Because there is no repository for the packages, updates will not cause notifications or automatic installation. Furthermore, even if/when updated packages are available, Canon will have to write another awkward shell script in order to handle them due to the way that the first set of packages was installed.
  6. The ink monitor is a standalone ugly application that must be started from the command line, and isn’t integrated into the CUPS GUI

These problems are particularly disappointing when you consider that an alternative driver is available which solves most of these problems, and is far more elegant and easy to manage. Turboprint is a well established solution for printing drivers on GNU/Linux and supports hundreds of commonly used printers. It is a commercially developed, proprietary driver, and as such I don’t plan to use it. However, if I was going to use a proprietary driver for my new printer, then I’d sooner use Turboprint, which I can install and remove via apt, and has much more extensive support for the printer’s features via an easy compact GUI interface.

Fortunately Free Software drivers are available for the IP 4850 from Gutenprint, and whilst they aren’t capable of getting the most out of the device, on balance I prefer to use them than the official Canon GNU/Linux drivers. Canon’s drivers seem to serve little purpose currently – for basic printing, out of the box support via Gutenprint works well (a pop-up dialogue configured the printer in about a minute, without an Internet connection), and for more professional use Turboprint offers a far better proprietary solution.

It’s great to see Canon recognising the existence of Free Software operating systems when it comes to their printer drivers however, and it’s nice to see that they went to the trouble of creating RPM and DEB packages, even if they fuddled them into a nasty shell script. It’s also good to see them integrating the driver into CUPS.

Hopefully these baby steps will develop into a better solution for future Canon printers. It’s a shame that the company decided not to improve existing Gutenprint drivers, but with a little work the ones that they currently distribute could be much improved, and do away with their shell script, provide an official repository for their packages, and extend CUPS lpadmin interface to support features like print head alignment. They could do all that without switching the drivers themselves to a Free Software license, if company policy prohibits this. That would at least mean that consumers could purchase Canon printers with confidence that they could be configured in a relatively easy and familiar way. It could also make it easier for Canon to relicense the drivers as Free Software at a later stage, as there would be cleaner separation between the components they would be providing.

Canon have got their foot on the ladder of GNU/Linux support however, which is more than can be said of many rival printer manufacturers, and for that I salute them.


Free Software Computer Aided Design (CAD): a summary

Computer Aided Design software is critically important to a variety of industries and professions. It’s also notorious for being poorly catered for by Free Software applications. Here’s a brief summary of the current situation.

The .DWG issue

The standard

DWG (“drawing”) is currently the industry standard file format for CAD: it is also a proprietary file format.

“As frustrating as it is, [these] are the options right now for CAD
on [GNU/Linux]: non-Free Software that supports DWG, or free
software that doesn’t” [From LWN].

Freedom and .DWG

LibreDWG is the Free Software library for converting between DWG and other formats. While progress with LibreDWG is being made for reading DWG files “nothing uses the library, so it is of limited use on its own”. There may be work done this summer as part of Google Summer of Code (GSOC) to implement support for DWG 2000 and DWG 2004, which would presumably be very useful.

Working without DWG

The DWG issue aside, here are some other routes you could take:

Summary

The problems with DWG are currently unsolved (above suggestions notwithstanding). However, projects like LibreCAD for 2D, KiCAD for electronics, FreeCAD for 3D, and LibreDWG for conversion may offer solutions in the near future.

What can you do?

Contact as many of the related organisations and projects as possible and tell them about your needs and interests. If nothing else, this will help to demonstrate a continued demand within the community for workable solutions, and open channels of communications for future developments.

This post originated as an email to the Director of ONAWI: “A non-profit organisation that aims to directly contribute to a just transition towards climate change mitigation by making designs of wind turbines freely available to all”.

Thanks for FSFE volunteer Anna Morris for turning it into an article for my blog!


USB Wifi for the SheevaPlug freedombox

After a few hours searching for a USB wifi adapter to purchase for my Debian Squeeze based eSATA SheevaPlug last weekend, I settled on one from Amazon.

Despite the availability of numerous adapters claiming to be compatible with various versions of GNU/Linux (or ‘Ubuntu x.xx compatible’ at least), few of them work with non x86/64 versions of Debian because they require the use of non-Free firmware which is only available for those two architectures. For example, the LM Tech Wireless n adapter has the following warning on its corresponding Wiki page.

Unfortunately I couldn’t find any 802.11n devices that looked like they would work with ARM versions of Debian, and it was often impossible to tell what chipset the advertised product was using (note to retailers: if the chipset cannot be easily determined then a whole market just ruled our your product!).

Therefore I reluctantly bought an 802.11b/g adapter using the RTL8187B chipset, which as far as I can tell from the Debian Wiki should work with all Squeeze architectures supported by the distribution.

It’s galling to have to pay more for an inferior product (I’ve previously purchased 802.11n adapters for £6 that worked with fedora out-of-the-box), but if the adapter works with my SheevaPlug when it arrives then all will be forgiven.

Look out for an update in the near future.

In the mean time please share your recommended Debian Squeeze ARM USB wifi adapters in the comments.

UPDATE:

The adaptor that I purchased works perfectly with with my freedombox. A quick addition of my network password to /etc/network/interfaces, followed by the execution of ifup wlan0 was all that was required. The adaptor in question is labelled “LogicPro”, and can be purchased from Amazon (don’t forget to use the FSFE donation add-on if you buy one!).


Usability nightmares: UK online tax filing with HMRC

So far my battle to file my tax return online has taken six weeks. The official method of submission has failed repeatedly, and my attempts at resolution have led me into a web of usability nightmares. After having found the tech support telephone number using a search engine (ten minutes of searching the tax website hmrc.gov.uk proved futile) I embarked upon my epic voyage.

Required: 7 types of log in data; retrieval difficult or impossible

So far I been required to locate and store multiple instances of the follow types of data:

  1. national insurance number
  2. unique tax payer reference number (UTR)
  3. gateway ID
  4. user ID
  5. activation code
  6. password
  7. call reference number

Several of these can only be retrieved by post; a request must be made, in some cases exclusively by phone, to have the data sent to your registered postal address. The UTR allegedly takes 72 hours, and the activation code allegedly takes 7 days (in my case it took 10). Once your activation code arrives, it has be used with 28 days, after which it expires and you have to order and wait for a new one.

However, if the address that they have on file is out of date (which is likely as many people only contact the tax office once each year to file their return) then you must wait a further 72 hours after changing your address (which must be done by phone) before you can proceed with any part of the registration process.

As far as I can tell the user ID cannot be retrieved at all, and it isn’t sent to you at all so unless you copy it when it shows on screen the first and last time during the prolonged registration process, then you have to start again.

The gateway ID (confusingly also interchangeably referred to  as the user ID) cannot be retrieved either, at least not in its entirety. Half of it is presented on the HMRC after you’ve provided identifying information, and the other half is emailed to you.

Multiple accounts

You could be forgiven for thinking that once you’ve completed the strenuous registration process once, you can use the HMRC website again for other tax filing services that they offer. This is not the case however; there are multiple different types of accounts, so each person can end up with several accounts on the HMRC website and therefore several complete sets of most of the bits of data listed above. This doesn’t become apparent until you try and use a new service, and are presented with an uninformative “Access denied” message, which simply points you back to your account homepage with no explanation, help or guidance. If you registered last year in order to pay the tax man for the privilege of notifying him that your company name and details still haven’t changed, and this year you want to file your self assessment tax return, then you need to register a new account, and wait for the necessary data to be posted to you all over again.

However, even if you go through this process, there is still no guarantee that you’ll be able to fulfill your legal obligation to file your tax, as I recently discovered.

Access denied screenshot

An instant classic: "Access deined" on HMRC

System fail: my experience

I suffered the need for two separate accounts as described, except that when my new details arrived by post, they didn’t work. I continued to get the following meaningless message:

Access Denied

You have tried to access a page that you have no permission to view.

Please click ‘Next’ to proceed

Next leads to your account homepage, without any mention of how to fix the error or what caused it, or who to call. After a call to the well hidden tech support number, I double checked that I hadn’t visited the HMRC website via a link from a search engine, which I was told is enough to break the login process (a major bug in itself, surely?), and then was told to register another account. This I did, then waited ten days until my activation code arrived, at which point I tried to log in with the new account, and once again met with “Access denied”. By this time the deadline for filing tax returns had passed, and I was liable for an arbitrary £100 fine, despite the fact that I started the process of trying to file my tax with my existing HMRC online account with more than a week to spare.

I called up again, and was told again to register a new account. This I have done, and am still waiting for yet another activation code to arrive in the post. Because I can’t change my registered address without more delay, the code is going to somewhere that I no longer live, but fortunately I set up postal forwarding so hopefully it will be delivered correctly to my current residence.

Conclusion

HMRC’s online tax filing system is painful to use and has cost me more than £100 in late fines and phone calls to their call center (the message recommends calling back in a few weeks due to high volume of enquiries: each person that follows that advice is worth £100 in fines!). Its also wasted hours of my time, and caused me considerable stress and frustration. All because of a badly designed usability-ignorant filing system.

This is a system that’s used by tens of millions of people each year – surely HMRC should provide a better service than this!


FSFE at ODF Plugfest and Pirate Party Conference

On Wednesday night I travelled from Manchester to London to attend the ODF Plugfest event, located in nearby Maidenhead the following day. Just before catching the train from Manchester Picadilly, I collected a new 2m tall self-supporting FSFE banner, for use at the booth that I would be running a few days later at the Pirate Party Conference.

I stayed with British FSFE team member Chris Woolfrey in his London flat, and on Thursday morning I took the train to Maidenhead, and headed to the town hall, where the ODF Plugfest was being hosted. During the day there were several talks on various technical aspects of Open Document Format, including new solutions in KOffice to old interoperability problems between desktop ODF editors.

odf-plugfest

Conference room at the ODF Plugfest

Basil Cousins, co-founder and Director of Open Forum Europe was present, as were Paul Adams, COO of Kolab Systems and former FSFE British Coordinator, Michael Leenaars from nlnet, and representatives from Microsoft, among others. In the evening I had several discussions about new potential Document Freedom Day activities for 30th March. These and other opportunities give me hope that this DFD will be the best ever for the UK.

DFD logo

Document Freedom Day

That evening I returned to Chris’ house quite late, and spent some time discussing internet marketing opportunities for FSFE with an old friend of mine. We had a look at FSFE’s (currently disabled) Google Adwords account (donated by Google), and arranged for him to use his extensive experience to help manage future internet marketing campaigns.

Westminister, shortly before my train to Glasgow

London skyline

London skyline, shortly before my train to Glasgow

The following morning I went to a printing shop in Whitechapel, and printed around 50 pages of information and leaflets for the Pirate Party Conference. I then took the train North to Glasgow, arriving just in time to check in to my B&B, count the stock that had been sent there in advance from FSFE’s Dusseldorf office, pick up some food on Sauchiehall Street, and go to bed.

The next morning I arrived at the conference venue on St. George’s Square at 09.30, and after being introduced to various Pirate Party UK members, I set up my first FSFE booth – complete with the new banner. I had to quickly assemble the CD stands that I had printed on a friend’s computer in my Manchester co-working space. Once complete, they looked good, and helped me distribute about 15 CDs – copies of Fedora, Mandriva, and the FSWIN (Free Software for Windows) CD. The merchandise was popular, and I sold four t-shirts; mostly ones which read “hacking for freedom”.

FSFE Booth

FSFE Booth at PPUK Conference

The day included by talks by leaders of pirate parties in the UK, Sweden, Switzerland, and also the PPUK Executive Council. My talk came last, and I took the opportunity to explain the importance of Free Software to pirates, particularly in terms of accessibility, security, participation, and most importantly, freedom.

PPUK Conference room

PPUK Conference room

PPUK Conference evening venue

PPUK Conference evening venue

I was pleasantly surprised by the warm enthusiasm for Free Software that I witnessed in the majority of attendees. When I asked at the beginning of my talk “who here is already using Free Software?” almost every hand was raised! Not only that, but several people that I spoke to were already using GNU/Linux, and many were Free Software activists in their own right.

Fireman statue

Fireman statue near Glasgow Central Station

St. Georges Square, Glasgow

St. Georges Square, Glasgow

I made new contacts in Manchester like Tim Dobson of Manchester Digital and Loz Kaye (current PPUK leader), and came back with new ideas for FSFE’s press releases, following an animated discussion in a pub about PPUK’s current press release procedure. During the question and answer session following my talk I was asked “what can the Pirate Party UK do to appeal to British members of the Free Software community”, and this has caused me to think about ways to build stronger bonds between the two groups for mutual benefit in future.

Scottish hills

Scottish hills, taken from the train

I headed home on Sunday, and although I had a bad cold throughout the trip, I had a good time, and was met many new like minded British activists.


Pure Data workshop with MFS at Madlab

On Tuesday I attended a workshop on Pure Data (PD) hosted by Manchester Free Software (MFS) at Madlab hackerspace.

By the end of the evening, most attendees had used purely graphical drag-and-drop tools to create mouse controlled synthesised instruments. The room was filled with cacophony of 50’s style beeps and twangs. Clanger fans were well catered for.

I learned that PD is used as a back end for many games and audio applications, including the massively successful Spore. I saw great potential for the use of PD by performance artists and interactive exhibitions.

A variety of people took part, and I was glad to see a comparatively high percentage of women getting involved.

Pure Data workshops are held in Manchester each week.

Building an instrument at the Pure Data workshop


Filling in the bank’s blanks with regular expressions

I’ve recently had to do a lot of work on a set of data relating to my bank account transactions, which required a great deal of text manipulation, and working with several regular expressions. My bank doesn’t believe that giving their customers access to digital copies of their account and transaction history is important, and they only make available images (stored in PDFs) of past statements which have been posted. Because of this, I had to use Optical Character Recognition software to extract text from the images, fix by hand all the errors in the resulting output, and then manually structure the data into columns and rows by using regular expressions (as my OCR software didn’t detect them). To make matters worse, the images provided by my bank had a large text watermark on each one, written diagonally across the page stating “duplicate”. All contents of the spreadsheet which came into contact with this text was unreadable during OCR, and had to fixed by hand.

Once the data was successfully extracted and structured, I still had a problem however – my bank chooses to list each date only once, and so most of the listed transactions for my account had no date associated with them. The date is critical for the data to be useful to me, and I couldn’t sort or further analyse the accounts without knowing the date that each transaction had taken place. After some thought, I decided use a regular expression to fix the problem.

Problem

A spreadsheet with thousands transactions, one per row, where the date of each transaction is listed only once, with all following dates of that transaction missing a date (transactions were listed in date order). Before further processing the data (sorting, analysing) I needed to ensure that each transaction had its own date listed in the correct column.

Solution

By using regular expressions in KDE’s Kate text editor, I was able to quickly associate all rows with the correct date. I searched for empty cells which should have housed a date, and for each one took the date from the transaction above. I repeated this until each row had its own date.

The regex that I used (note that Kate wont accept pattern delimiters, switches, or greediness operators):

find: n([0-9]|[0-9][0-9]) (jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec);(.*)n;

replace: n1 2;3n1 2;

The pattern finds all dates in the correct format and which begin the row, are contained within a cell (I used semicolon ; cell delimiters to avoid confusion with decimals and thousands in this CSV), and are followed by a row which does not contain a transaction date (ie the first cell is empty, and the newline starts with a cell delimiter ; ).

Each time the pattern is found, the matching text is replaced with the same line and an altered version of the first cell of the following line. The replace pattern inserts a duplicate of the date found in the first line into the first cell of the following line, thereby copying the date from one to the next.

Having entered these patters into Kate’s find and replace fields I clicked on “replace all” several times, until no more matches were found, meaning that all transactions now had a date associated with them, listed in the correct table column at the start of each new line.

Result

My spreadsheet now contains a complete dataset, with each transaction correctly dated. I can sort the data as I wish (by price, incoming or outgoing, location, business, etc.) and easily manipulate it in preparation for submitting my tax return.


GSM: global social menace?

Last night I heard Ali Gündüz speak about Free Software GSM. During the talk, and in the following discussion, many interesting points were made:

  • The GSM standard is controlled by only four or five international corporations
  • The standard is very complicated for even experts and seasoned developers to grasp
  • Mobile phone manufacturers have no access to the source code of the GSM modems that they use in their devices – they don’t know how they work
  • Many phones have two processors – one dedicated solely to the GSM modem, meaning that even Free Software and open hardware phones do not have access to the way that GSM is used (even Openmoko phones)
  • GSM is incapable of meaningfully encrypting your calls, and its common practice for carriers to allow no encryption at all (in some countries encrypting calls is actually illegal)
  • With only a few thousand euros, and the motive to do so, it is possible to eavesdrop on any GSM based conversation
  • Several countries’ law enforcement agencies use GSM eavesdropping without warrants
  • Network licenses issued by governments are required to set up your own GSM network, are prohibitively expensive, and often already all sold to large carriers.
  • Network licenses are are throwback to early 20th century radio and are unnecessarily applied to protocols like GSM – Internet like packet based communication methods could do away with the need for costly government controlled broadcasting
  • Because GSM is so tightly controlled and little understood, we can only guess at its privacy problems. Location may be recordable by third parties, chips may always be on and tracking location and call information, law enforcement may be able to gather data without permission
  • Free Software GSM systems are used extensively on cruise ships operating in international waters
  • GSM is very insecure and vulnerable to trivial attacks – it trusts members of the network to identify themselves correctly and obey guidelines and restrictions, making it easy to bring down a GSM network, lie about who and what your device and network is, and intercept and re-route calls and data meant for somebody else

What will be the outcome of 68% of all human beings relying on a communication system that is insecure, unconfidential and closed to inspection and understanding? GSM looks like a disaster waiting to happen; watch this space!

malignant pocket dwellers abound

Ali speaking about GSM at the Berlin Fellowship meeting


Open Respect: about time

I recently became aware of the new initiative from Jono Bacon called “open respect”. As you may know, this campaign and accompanying website aims to improve the standard of communications between members of the Free Software community, particularly where it takes place in informal environments, such as online forums.

Although this initiative resulted from some potentially just community criticism of Canonical’s recent actions relating to Gnome, I’d like to stress the importance of this project’s message.

The importance of maintaining a fair and civil tone in online FS exchanges may seem obvious to many. However, I see this issue as more than merely lipservice or sour grapes. In fact, I consider the tone and spirit of a community and its communication to be critical to the continued growth of Free Software’s user base.

Around the end of July a crisis developed at the British Computer Society (a chartered institute with headquarters in London’s Covent Garden). The BCS’ published an article by the director of a British FS company which made several contraversial and arguably unsubstantiated claims regarding the relartive insecurirty of GNU/Linux in comparison to proprietary operating systems. Bedlam ensued in the form of hundreds of comments (several streching to hundreds of words) submitted to the article, and tens of others on FSFE’s UK mailing list. Multiple complaints were filed with BCS.

The tone of responses turned personal, expletive, and enraged by comment number two. Diatribes were exchanged. And even on FSFE’s list, verbal attacks came thick and fast, and were at times just as unsubstantiated as the article which they rebuked. Some contributions sounded positively rabid. The venom was palpable.

For me, the fact that the BCS had been foolish enough to publish the poorly thought out piece was not particularly newsworthy. Biased stories concerning Linux security are published every day of the year, by more reputable agencies than BCS. The disproportionate reaction of the British Free Software community was, however, unwelcome news. When I voiced my concerns about the escalation and degeneration of debate to those concerned, I found myself in an apparent minority of one.

“I don’t think that this kind of reaction does Free Software in the UK any favours…from reading these comments many people would think that Free Software advocates are extremists” – from my post to FSFE’s UK list.

Managing the atmosphere of online communities takes work. Creating an environment where newcomers feel confident when asking questions, and where knowledgeable members stay around long enough to correct and inform those less experienced requires skill and patience. When its done correctly however, a productive and resilient community can develp, and provide the necessary catalysis for knowledge and development to thrive. Here I would point to two examples of groups that have achieved this balance: the PCLinuxOS community forums, and the Maemo.org community website. Both are routinely cited as their respective project’s ‘killer feature’, and both have successfully retained users and visitors over a period of several years.

For Windows users coming to a GNU/Linux desktop for the first time there is a huge amount to learn. Much of this information isn’t written down, and that which is takes skill to find for those who are uninitiated. Whether or not these details get communicated clearly and quickly, with patience and understanding, can be a deciding factor in whether an intrepid Free OS adventurer becomes a habitual user, and potential advocate. It is therefore of vital importance that users are routinely treated with respect. If this is overlooked then new users will never graduate from asking irritating obvious questions, and existing users will become disillusioned and cease to provide the necessary framework of support that makes a voluntary community.

Respect, tolerance and dignity are necessary components of effective communication and group cohesion in a medium which doesn’t allow for tempering body-language or verbal inflection. For these reasons I warmly welcome the Open Respect initiative. This inter-community effort to address such a critical issue is long overdue.


FSFE in Sweden at Free Society Conference

Last weekend Matthias (Fellowship Co-ordinator) and I joined other FSFE fellows and flew to Gothenburg for FSCONS (Free Society Conference and Nordic Summit). We arrived on Friday afternoon and went straight to the venue at Gothenburg IT University.

20101106_002

Arrival in Gothenburg on Friday

FSFE hosted a track this year called Divide and Reconquer, which focussed on the problem of the trend towards centralised non-free Internet services, and possible solutions.

All of our five talks went well, each generating extensive discussion in the question and answer sessions. I was too busy hosting the talks and fielding questions to photograph each talk, but here are a few that I managed to snap.

Benjamin Bayart talking about the structure of the Net

Benjamin Bayart talking about the structure of the Net

Michael Christen Talking about YaCy

Michael Christen Talking about YaCy

Matt Lee talking about GNU FM and GNU social

Matt Lee talking about GNU FM and GNU social

As it turned out, I was responsible for hosting all talks in our conference room, for both days. Matthias helped out and hosted two out of fourteen. This gave me a chance to try my salesmanship at our booth, which was located on the fourth floor.

The FSFE booth

The FSFE booth

As I had hoped, the conference provided a unique forum for debate and discussion. Our talk “Socially responsible social networks” was particularly intense. Whilst Michael Chisari from Applseed Project discussed possibilities for implementing browser level encryption in his software, I was pleased to be able to introduce Werner Koch; founder and lead developer of GNU Privacy Guard (GPG). Werner stood up and commented on the merits of using GPG with appleseed.

Jon Philips from Status.net was also present in the front row and answered some questions relating to privacy and standards of the emerging Free Software social networking ecosphere. Two hours after this talk ended, I noticed that heated discussion continued in a group of about 15 outside the room where it had taken place.

Another highlight for me was witnessing Michael Christen demonstrating the seemingly endless features of YaCy, the complete Free Software search engine. I was literally on the edge of my seat, barely able to believe my eyes, as Michael demonstraed YaCy’s capabilities and optimisations. At one point a member of the audience asked “this is kind of a strange idea, but would it eventually be possible for me to use YaCy to replace grep and use it to search my desktop?”. Michael silently turned around, and in ten seconds had demonstrated how this functionality was already alive and well within the latest stable release. Audience enthusiasm was clear from the first question of the Q&A: “why isn’t this in the Debian repositories already?!”.

I received new, very positive, feedback on the upcoming replacement fsfe.org website design, and discovered FSFE’s Google Adwords account with the aid of Finnish Fellowship Coordinator Otto Kekäläinen.

Many old friends were present at the conference, and the numerous social events provided opportunity to update each other on subjects from artificial intelligence, to reverse proxies, to Swedish leftist politics, to new UK hackerspaces. On Sunday night several of us ended up in Gothenburg’s unique GNU/Linux shop and cafe Gnutiken, where we stayed until the early hours, benefiting from the company of some undrinkable Swedish liqueur.

Gnutiken

Gnutiken

After stopping for Swedish specialities at a supermarket in Nordstan, we headed home on a flight to Berlin. I took this as we approached Central Station for the last time.

Central Station, on the route home

Central Station, on the route home